The paper issues from the consideration that the psychic, in general, and the human psychic, in particular, is the most complex and delicate phenomenon in Universe and in the sb sport acorn swiss anti aging of its nature the opposition between the scientific and religious approach had the most opened and acute character. On the trajectory of this opposition can be found sb sport acorn swiss anti aging both the points of convergence and of separation.
The first ones are: 1.
The second ones are: 1. The interpretation of psychic genesis; 2. The interpretation of the relation psychic-body; 3. The interpretation of the existence after the death. Keywords: human psychic, psychology, religion The psychic, in general, the human psychic, in particular, represents the most complex sb sport acorn swiss anti aging delicate phenomenon in the known us Universe, and in the same time, by its nature, it is the most enigmatical and mysterious one.
Therefore, is understandable the fact that in this area had been developed the strongest controversies and oppositions between the materialist and idealist orientations, between science and religion.
Historically, the approach of psychic has passed several stages, corresponding to the evolutive trajectory of the man, of his capacity of cognition and action.
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It was supposed that the human psychic takes more concrete forms like: a The psychic-life, which during the sleep break off the body and travels to other places where it meets other souls and which after the death of the owner searches an other body to whom it can cause different illusions; b The psychic-shadow, which accompanies the body in the wakeful state, during the day; c The psychic-body's reflex, which appears when we look at silent rivers or lakes; d The psychic-nucleus proper both to man and animals, which gives some common traits and even some common destiny.
Such a modality of understanding and explanation of the sb sport acorn swiss anti aging can be named naive-pre-scientific and its stays at the basis of so-called popular psychology, which continues to exist, even in our days.
From the scientific point of view, the animism has however the merit that the psychic was considered not as the emanation of a divine transcendental entity situated outside and over the nature, but as an intrinsic attribute of that.
The second important stage of the evolution in approaching and explanation of human psychic is marked by the apparition of religion, which combines the conception and the faith in the existence of some entities of divine and supernatural essence denominated deities, each of them having different responsibilities in the act of creation and government of the world.
The human psychic appears as a result of joint contribution of these deities, each of them determining certain traits, qualities and defects. The human destiny was considered an implacable programme given by the deities, for their conciliation and gratification being imagined a large repertory of shamanic practices and rituals.
An important change in the conceptualization and theoretical systematization of divine origin of the man and his psychic was the appearance in the late antiquity of monotheist religion, the first its variant being the Judaism, systematized in Talmud. From the theoretical point of view, the most elaborated, having as its central axis the theology, is the Christian religion.
This one categorically sustains the idea according to which not only the man, but also all other things, beings and phenomena on the earth are creations of the God — a divine entity omnipotent and omnipresent.
The Points of Convergence and of Separation between Objective Psychology and Religion in the Interpretation of Human Psychic 13 The sb sport acorn swiss anti aging essential period in approaching Sondaj elvețian anti-îmbătrânire explaining the human psychic is represented by the formation, also in the late antiquity, of great philosophical systems, laical in their content, but structured on two opposite coordinates — materialist and idealist — which in different variants has had confronted up to our days.
Until the constitution of sciences, by their gradual separation from philosophy, the strongest opposition in the explanation of the nature and essence of human psychic was between the materialist philosophy and religion.
The idealist philosophy, despite the fact that doesn't claim the presence of the Divinity for the explanation of man's origin, postulating the primacy of spirit or of absolute idea, it stays at the same part of barricade with the religion.
Finally, the fourth major period in approaching and explaining the human psychic is the scientific one. The first scientific data and ideas about the psychic phenomena were offered by the biological sciences — the anatomy and physiology of nervous system, the anatomy and physiology of sensory systems, the neurology.
These sciences have demonstrated two important things, namely: a the dependence of psychic reactions and states upon the action of external stimuli and b the realization of psychic processes as functions or activities of the brain. Thus were created the objective premises for the separation of psychology from philosophy and for its development as a distinct science.
This moment was marked by the foundation in Leipzig, inby W. Wundt, of first psychological laboratory.
In this laboratory begun the application of experimental method in the study of psychic processes sensations and perceptions. The psychology became the main science, which has as object the study of the psychic in all its complexity and at all levels of evolution. Unavoidably, on this matter it came in dispute with the religion. Such dispute is a particularization to the psychic reality of the principal opposition between the science and religion in the explanation of the Universe in general.
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The scientific psychology operates with the principles of objectivity and verification testabilityaccording to which the psychic is not a sfaturi pentru fondul de ten anti-imbatranire supernatural phenomenon, but one which is organically integrated in the series of other natural phenomena of the Universe, and it may be hamamelis și anti-îmbătrânire with specific objective methods sufficiently rigorous and accurate.
That fact is main point of separation between psychology and religion. Concerning this aspect it is important to mention two things: 1 both the internal conditions which depend on each individuum and the external factors which belong to the environment in which live the concrete individuals having a big degree of variability and heterogeneousness will determine not one psychic structure but so much different structures as individuals exist; so if the human psychic should had been the product of the divine creation, the religion can not to explain us this extraordinary diversity of levels and profiles under which it appears in individual plan; 2 if should be true the religious idea that human psychic is the expression of divine spirit, then it must exist by itself and to develop from inside; in fact, the genetic psychology argues that the psychobehavioural development of the sb sport acorn swiss anti aging goes from the outside to inside under the influence of the external stimulations and of the mechanism of learning.
Sb sport acorn swiss anti aging at the adult subject are internal mental processes and operations at the little child are external actions with the concrete objects from around or with their models. The second point which separates the psychology and religion is the mind-body relation. The objective sb sport acorn swiss anti aging maintains the principle of somato-psychic monism, which postulates that the man is a structural functional unity, the psychic realizing as a natural function of the brain; the religion adopts the principle of psycho-physical dualism postulating the opposition between body as a finite and passing entity and soul as entity of divine essence, which after the death of the individuum continues to exist in the other world.
The scientific psychology cannot admit the existence of psychic out of the individual bodies. But the fact, that the religion sustains the idea of undying, eternal character of soul and of resurrection after death has a practical stimulating value for man, giving him the hope in the possibility, even illusory, to perpetuate his existence, taking this way an ascension over the death.
Between the objective psychology and religion there are also some points of convergence. In this paper we will present three such points. The first: both the psychology and the religion maintain the ideal nonsubstantial character of human psychic, its irreducibility to the biophysical, biochemical or secretory phenomena of visceral or neural kind.
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But there is a difference in explanation of this ideality: the psychology explains it by the information dimension of the Universe, while the religion sb sport acorn swiss anti aging by the supernatural dimension of Divinity. For psychology the psychic represents the highest modality of realization and expression of the information at the level of the nervous system reaching upper point in the human brain.
The Points of Convergence and of Separation between Objective Psychology and Religion in the Interpretation of Human Psychic 15 The framing of psychic in the category of information phenomena is based on the following arguments: 1. The same we can say about the psychic: by its information nature, it can be perpetuating ad infinitum, with the condition to conserve or renovate its neural mechanism. Unfortunately, for the present, that is not still possible, the brain's transplant remaining an unrealizable dream.
The main way which the psychic structures and contents were perpetuated during the time, after the death of individuals, is the objectivation. That means the exteriorization and incorporation of ideas, thoughts, emotions, and aspirations etc. The most sophisticated form the objectivation acquired in our days is the computerized simulation, the computer's software which reproduces imitates the human psychic functions from perception to problem solving, decision making and creation of poetry and music.
And just these raise for the scientific research the most difficult questions and just at this level we confront with the most enigma and mysteries, which make possible the invocation of some supernatural force.
Finally, the third point of convergence between the scientific psychology and religion consists in the recognition of moral dimension of human psychic and of human consciousness.
The religion defines such dimension as way in which the man respects the Ten Commandments given by God; the psychology considers that moral consciousness reflects the degree of internalization and respect by the individuals of social norms and rules of behaviour.
Где же крепость.
Like religion, the scientific psychology sustains that the moral principles, conceptions and feelings represent the essential elements of human spiritual ascension and improvement.
And in supporting such spiritual development the invocation and appeal to a divine justice is proved to be a necessary and efficient procedure. Under practical aspect the religion and the scientific psychology has in common the care to optimize the human condition natureto enable the individual personalities.
But each makes this with its specific methods: the religion by ceremonies, rituals and confession, the scientific psychology by educational programmes, advising and psychotherapy.
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Procesul globalizării, susţinut de revoluţia informaţională şi comunicaţională, modifică toate condiţiile existenţei umane, extinzându-se asupra relaţiilor tuturor marilor civilizaţii ale lumilor contemporane. Apare şi tendinţa identificării modernizării anumitor civilizaţii cu occidentalizarea lor, ceea ce conduce la o competitivitate sporită, dar şi la conflicte mocnite.
În acest joc, rolul religiei poate fi benefic — de acceptarea reciprocă şi dialog — sau malefic — ca element de confruntare. Articolul pledează pentru preeminenţa dialogului şi a cooperării între civilizaţii pe baza toleranţei şi a respectului reciproc între religii.
The process of globalization boosted by the information revolution and communication modifies all the conditions of human existence.
It is extended sb sport acorn swiss anti aging the relationships among all the great civilizations of the contemporary world. They multiply and diversify their contacts. The tendency to identify the modernization of certain non- Western civilizations with a process of Westernization is the cause of the promotion of a spirit of competitiveness which is also conflict-ridden within the relationships among civilizations.
What is the contribution of religion in the contacts among civilizations: mutual acceptance and dialogue or, on the contrary, an element of confrontation? The approach points at the conditions for the preeminence of dialogue and cooperation among civilizations through tolerance and mutual respect among religions.
Keywords: information revolution, communication, dialogue 1. A few words about globalization The human society evolves nowadays an intensive and comprehensive process of globalization.
This process has as a background the revolution in the fields of crema pentru zona ochilor and communication. Under effects of that revolution, the World becomes, metaphoric speaking, smaller.
The distances are compressed, the time flows more quickly. The scientific research elaborates new and new ideas, transformed in sb sport acorn swiss anti aging advanced technologies and techniques, in goods and services.
In order to meet the avalanches of news, the education adapts itself rapidly and profoundly. As much as the people live in an information society, the education becomes a permanent activity. The globalization changes dramatically not only the existential condition of the individuals, but those of the human communities, too.
Even the most powerful states are no more able to develop in isolation. The economic processes: the trade, the fluxes of capital, the circulation of goods, services and working force challenge national and regional barriers, have tendency to get global dimensions.
Any significant event happened somewhere has effects in the world economy as a whole. Similar developments affects in a way or another the fields of culture, leisure, the daily life of the people. The globalization do not recognizes frontiers, ignores not only geographical distances, but tends to uniform ideas, opinions, tests, behaviors. This kind osteopatia elimina ridurile cumulative effects are extended everywhere in human civilizations, sooner or later.
A few words about civilization What are them? They cannot be found on political-administrative maps, which represent the world-states, or on those which show the presence of ethnical or linguistic entities: nations, minorities, groups of population; they are not mentioned in the maps prepared by geopolitics, according to power relationship among states, groups of states, regions.
The civilizations are human conglomerates, usually large ones, which are a natural result of affinities among people — namely affinities on language, ethnicity, historical togetherness, way of life and, fist of all, of religion. The civilizations are human communities consistent enough to have individuality, profile, distinctive features; on the other hand, they have enough elasticity in order to avoid an exaggerated rigidity of the population.
Essentially, they are defined culturally — the religion, language, ethnicity, way of life are, all, cultural phenomena.
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In the same time, their existence, features and manifestations have some other determinatives related, mainly, to their level of economic development, natural resources, geographic location, with its geopolitical potentialities. In the scientific literature, there are different opinions about civilizations existing in today World.
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Huntington, Ciocnirea civilizaţiilor şi refacerea Ordinii Mondiale, Antet,pp. Religion and Relations among Civilizations, under the Conditions of Globalization 19 3. Contemporary civilizations: mutual relations 3.
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Factors able to stimulate competition and conflict 3. With the exception of Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan, all countries from the leading echelon of economic development belong to the Western Civilization and to Romano-Catholic and Protestant Christianity. The financial power the core of itthe most advanced scientific and technological potentialities, the majority of transnational corporations the main promoters of globalization belong, also, to the West, which has as a state-nucleus the United States of America.
The West has the leadership of the main international financial institutions — the World Bank and the International Monetary Fond; it is best situated into the G8 raton suisse anti aging exerts the most powerful influence on the World Trade Organization.
In the Security Council of the United Nations, the West has 3 from 5 permanent seats, capacity that implies the veto right. The West disposes of the military supremacy in the World, first of all due to the United States, has the keyposition into the only political-military alliance existing in the World, the most powerful in history — the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Some of the developed countries: Japan, Republic of Korea, Israel, Taiwan, and Australia have treaties or other security accords with the United States, under conditions when no country from other civilizations, excepting the Eastern-Central European countries, members of NATO, and benefit of security guarantees.
This position of power puts the relations among the Western Civilization and other civilizations on the ground of competition, hostility and conflict, of course, in different degrees. The universality and missionary character of the Western Civilization, which considers that the own culture, its values, the institutions created in the name of those values are superior to the culture, values and institutions proper to other civilizations, and must be spread all over the World and adopted by peoples belonging to other civilizations.
A particular aspect of that universalism it is the opinion largely circulated in the Western World according to which any modernization of the societies from other civilizations requires Westernalization. In other words, the modernization would mean assimilation by other civilizations of culture, values and institutions existing in the Western Civilization. The position of power of the Western Civilization, although huge, 20 Constantin Vlad starts to be eroded.
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The West is in a relative decline demographically. The rhythm of economic development of China, India, Nigeria, Brazil, Argentina, the natural resources, including of the energy, concentrated mainly in zones where are other civilizations, as well as the accumulation in such zones of great financial resources, the strong affirmation of Russia in the international affairs, the advance of many emergent economies in the field of IT, the growth of military capabilities of some countries — sb sport acorn swiss anti aging few of them states-nucleus of certain civilizations, represent increasing challenges to the dominant position of the West and of the Western Civilization.
In the same time, the advances of non-Western countries and zones constitutes an affirmation of confidence in the culture, values and the institutions proper to their own civilizations and a rejection of the pretence that any modernization would mean Westernalization. To such significant developments is added the authoritative voice of Japan, a country which became one of the most powerful economy and a leading technological force in the World, without annulling its cultural specificity that makes it a distinctive type of civilization.
It is extremely interesting in this respect the fact that sb sport acorn swiss anti aging countries from certain non- Western civilization adopt forms of market economy, Western methods of management, as well as political institutions like multi-party system, parliamentary democracy, etc. This is the case with some Islamic societies — for example, countries like Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey, and Pakistan.
The spirit of confrontation and conflict is the most obvious in the relations between the Islam and the West. I have in mind the Islam both as religion and as civilization, designated by the same concept. The conflictive character of the relations between the two civilizations has historical roots. The Arab-Islamic domination extended from the beginning of the 7 th century to the middle of the 8 th century; a Muslim order was imposed in the North Africa, Iberian Peninsula, the Middle East, Persia sb sport acorn swiss anti aging the Northern India.
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Over the following two centuries, the lines of division between Islamic World and Christianity remained stable. In th centuries, the Christians took the control of the Western part of the Mediterranean See, Sicily, and partially of the Iberian Peninsula. In thethe Crusades started. After that, the Muslim Turks entered in the sb sport acorn swiss anti aging. In they conquered Constantinople, then in and once again in assailed Vienna.
The failure to occupy the Capital of the Hapsburg Empire, market the beginning of the decline of the Muslim power in Europe. In the history of relations between the Islam and the West followed the colonialism, the Religion and Relations among Civilizations, under the Conditions of Globalization 21 competition on the immense deposits of oil and gas, located mostly in zones with Muslim people, the competition won usually by the Western countries.
Of course, the Islam has conflicting relations with other civilizations, but those with the Western World are by far the most profound.
The resurrection of Islam in the last half of century, the Arab-Israel wars, the lack of a just and lasting solution of the conflict between Palestinian and Israel, the constant support given by the United States to Israel during the clashes with the Arab World exacerbated to a maxim the spirit of competition and tensions.
Inside of Islam appeared some fundamentalist orientation and terrorist organizations. The September 11 th, the Afghanistan, the Iraq are, all, expressions of an escalation of hostility, tensions and conflicts between Islamic World and the West 3. The relations among civilizations are a part of the general condition of the international security. After cease of the Cold War, some new treats against peace and security appeared. Some of the authors consider that the zones where these new treats represent the highest risks and dangers are just the lines faults of meeting of states belonging to different civilizations 1.
Even that such opinions could be, in a way, exaggerated, they have their reason and deserve, according to my view, all attention. Some factors which could and should contribute to understanding and cooperation among civilizations This kind of factors, generating tensions in relations between civilizations could and should be counter-balanced by some conditions which, as an effect of globalization, put to the whole World a number of problems requiring united efforts, despite of any differences and controversies.